As an important part of textiles, knitwear has played an irreplaceable role in satisfying the clothing needs of Chinese people and entering the consumption market of various countries. However, we should see that under the promotion of high and new technology, the technical content of the world textile is not the same as before, and the knitwear has also made great progress. However, compared with the advanced level of the world, the production of China's needle textile still has a lot of room for improvement, especially the knitting dyeing and finishing is more backward. The meaning of knitting dyeing and finishing described by the author is not only limited to mechanical equipment, dye additives and processing means, but also should include working philosophy, technical software and so on. From the height of the world's demand for knitwear, we can understand and grasp the development trend of international knitting dyeing and finishing, and look forward to the trend of knitting dyeing and finishing in China. Then, how to make a correct judgment on the development trend of knitting dyeing and finishing in our country, based on what, based on what, the author thinks that the main basis of the three aspects of the actual judgment.
1、Domestic and foreign consumers for knitwear (mainly clothing, including ornaments, etc.) psychological and physiological demand. Under the worldwide consumption tide of advocating nature, pursuing health and yearning for green, the various characteristics of new knitwear have become a kind of hope for people to improve the quality of life.
2、Woven products printing and dyeing, yarn-dyed, wool) the development of the industry led to the development of knitting dyeing and finishing, and dyeing and finishing of new technology, new ideas, new concepts from the general textile printing and dyeing industry to knitwear dyeing and finishing industry gradient transfer time was shortened, accelerated the assimilation of knitting dyeing and finishing, a solid border between the two industries is weakening and fuzzy.
3、The practitioners of domestic knitting dyeing and finishing industry have gradually turned their eyes to the world and followed the development of world textile. The advance research of colleges and universities and scientific research institutes also indicates the trend of advanced technology development. Based on this, the author thinks that in the future a long period of time, the development trend of China's knitting dyeing and finishing industry mainly focuses on the new material fiber, ecological environmental protection, energy saving, functional finishing and electronic computer application.
And around these aspects, from hardware to software will have a new and greater improvement, all kinds of new technology, new technology, new equipment, new dye additives, new control means, new quality standards, will certainly give us to show the knitting dyeing and finishing development of a better prospect.
one、 New fabric materials (fiber) in science and technology rapid development and constantly improve the quality of life of the consumers under the dual role of catalytic, various new fabric materials (fiber) have mushroomed emerge in endlessly, on the one hand to knitting dyeing and finishing created unlimited broad heaven and earth, on the other hand also brings a new task for knitting dyeing and even challenge. We understand the new knitting materials, can freely, actively grasp the hosiery processing and the true meaning. In a sense, the new textile fiber will dominate the development direction of knitting dyeing and finishing. We can roughly classify the new knitting materials (fibers) into four categories: environment-friendly fibers, high-tech fibers, health care functional materials and new composite fibers.
1、 Green environmental fiber. (1) Lyoceell fiber; Shellfish fibers; Polylactic acid fiber PAL; (1) natural colored cotton; Hemp fiber; Modell fibers;
2、 High-tech material (fiber). Carbon fiber; The aramid fiber; Flame retardant fiber; Kosher photosensitive fiber; Conductive fiber; Moisture absorption wet fiber; Is nanomaterials; Being milk silk.
3、 Health protection and construction of functional materials (fiber) : permanent antibacterial fiber; Fragrant fibre; Far-infrared fiber; Uv resistant fiber; Soybean protein fiber.
4、 New synthetic fiber. (1) coolmax fiber; (2) CDP modified polyester fiber; (3) PTT fiber; 4. Chopped microfiber. In the present and the future of a period of time, we should pay special attention to the needle textile materials (fiber), dyeing and finishing to do reducing and the unified regulations, namely through dyeing and finishing, can keep the original style and features of new textile materials (fabric) and features (which can be called the reducibility of), and can give new features and functions (which can be called the regulations). According to the situation of China's needle textile material (fiber) industry and this industry, the key development of soybean protein fiber, crustacean fiber, natural color cotton, modal fiber and new composite fiber knitwear will be in line with the international advanced level of the opportunity.
two、 Ecological environmental processing and the embodiment of the ecological environmental protection as well as on the fabric, the requirement of knitting dyeing and finishing, both represent the trend of global consumption and production, and concentrated in developed countries, such as Europe, the United States, Canada and other knitwear demand in China big country) after China's accession to the WTO, use the method of green barriers to restrict imports. Therefore, ecological processing will be one of the effective ways to deal with the green barrier and expand the international market share. It will also be one of the major problems for China's knitting dyeing and finishing production to go to the international market. Ecological processing is mainly derived from the concept of ecological knitwear, which has four meanings:
①The production (planting) of raw materials (fibers) of knitwear is ecological and environmental friendly, not polluted by pesticides, chemical fertilizers, herbicides and other chemicals, nor disturbed by serious air pollution or soil pollution, or caused by environmental pollution in the production process;
②The processing of knitwear production is ecologically friendly, reducing the consumption of dye auxilia and energy and water resources as much as possible, and limiting sewage discharge to a large extent. Fabrics (fabrics and garments) do not contain harmful and toxic substances, advocating "clean production".
③The content of harmful substances in knitted products is very low, which is harmless and non-stimulating to consumers. Because knitwear is more in contact with the skin of human body than the general textile, so, ecological environment protection requirements are higher;
④Waste disposal of knitwear should be in line with environmental protection, that is, the use of knitted fabrics after recycling, recycling, or the use of favorable living environment of new fibers as textile raw materials.
At present we want to pay special attention to the ecological environmental protection processing is mainly 2, 3 aspects of the work. From the international point of view, ecological environmental protection work is also focused on the production process ecological standards and product ecological standards to grasp and operate.
First, adapted to the knitting dyeing and finishing process of ecological requirements is the international standard organization (ISO) environmental management technical committee issued by the independent evaluation criteria, namely, the family of ISO14000 standard, the standard first request within the enterprise to establish and maintain a conform to the requirements of the environmental management system, implementation from product development, design, processing, circulation use, disposal and then to the whole process of recycling the product life period of assessment system. The implementation and approval of ISO14000 group standards in China's knitting dyeing and finishing industry is still very rare, we and the international advanced level of the gap is very large.
Second, it should be noted that the most common and direct thing in the world is to set ecological standards for eco-needle textiles, also known as "green label" or "eco-label". In the traditional sense, quality evaluation mainly focuses on the appearance quality and physical index of needle textiles. Because of the extensive use of all kinds of ecological standards, only from the origin, specifications, ingredients and manufacturers and other indicators to measure needle textiles, has been unable to meet the changing consumer demand, policy environment, even the changes in the international situation.
Generally speaking, from the ecological point of view points out that ecological textile standard products in the limit of harmful substances and dosage, and the evaluation factors mainly include: ban regulations, limited, fastness grade, the main evaluation index, etc., in specific projects related to formaldehyde, pH value, heavy metals, pesticides, preservatives, organochlorine, dyeing fastness and can be carcinogenic aromatic amine, odor and chlorine phenol and volatile substances, most of the content related to the dyeing and finishing. Currently, the common international Standard for ecological needles textiles is oeko-tex Standard 100 (oeko-tex Standard 100). In addition, the European Union eco-label will also have an important impact on China's knitwear exports. The eu has also promulgated a new regulation on the application criteria for "eco-label" of textiles and introduced regulation no. 2002/371/EC on the application of new criteria for eco-label of textiles. This regulation has put forward more strict requirements on the limitation of harmful substances contained in almost all needle textile raw materials, the limitation of prohibited raw materials and harmful substances in the production, transportation and storage process of needle textiles, and the durability of products, etc., which has more extensive restrictions on all aspects of products and far exceeds the quality indicators of products themselves. China's ecological needle textile production has made a certain development, but overall is still in the initial stage, with a significant gap with developed countries, frankly speaking, this is also the bottleneck of the development of knitting dyeing and finishing. Due to the global consumers gradually strengthen environmental protection consciousness, especially in the western developed countries, the concept of "return to nature" increasingly integrated into the needle textile and garment consumption preference, more and more people are willing to pay higher prices to buy green product, ecological needles textiles promising prospects, believe that with the increasing ecological knitwear, emphasizes the harmony of man and nature will eventually become the main melody in the knitting industry. We must fully understand the importance of ecological environmental protection processing and huge potential, and should be clearly aware that have "ecological label", can adapt to the tide of international consumer, has a broad market space, and can improve the grade of the product, increase value-added products exports, avoid low level and low level of competition.
three、 Energy conservation in the production process of knitwear, dyeing and finishing processing is a huge energy consumption, it can be said that the traditional knitting dyeing and finishing is based on the huge energy consumption. The huge consumption of energy, on the one hand, greatly increases the cost of products and prolongs the processing process of products, on the other hand, it also causes irreversible waste and serious environmental pollution, especially the latter has become a social problem of the whole staff's concern.
As early as the 1980s and 1990s, people have realized that knitting dyeing and finishing is accompanied by a large number of energy consumption problems, but only limited to the technical level at that time and the development level of supporting industries, energy-saving work has not made a breakthrough. Water, electricity, steam and sewage still baffle colleagues in the industry. Since the beginning of this century, the concept of energy conservation has been deeply rooted in people's minds, and the constant changes in technical theories, technical equipment and technical elements have greatly promoted the development of energy conservation.
1、Technical theory: mainly chemical and biological applications. The theory and practice of alkali free refining, liquid ammonia mercerization, supercritical fluid dyeing (SFD), digital jet printing, biological enzyme treatment and low-temperature plasma treatment are all closely linked with energy saving.
2、Technical equipment: what is remarkable is the continuous reform of dyeing equipment. Even now, the new model of dyeing equipment is being launched with a loud name of "great energy saving effect". At present, the international advanced knitting dyeing equipment in energy saving ways mainly have three "flow" : (1) type air flow dyeing equipment of air flow dyeing machine and the traditional (overflow, jet dyeing machine main difference is that the air flow dyeing machine adopts air power system change fabric delivery form, replacing traditional dyeing machine, run on flow driven knitted fabric and dyed exchange under the state of atomization. Because there is no liquid circulation in the air flow dyeing machine, it can achieve a very low bath ratio. This type of dyeing equipment adopts the technology of separating woven fabric and dyeing liquid, so that the fabric runs in the storage trough, while the dyeing liquid circulates rapidly in another layer, only part of the knitted fabric is immersed in the dyeing liquid. Therefore, the amount of dye is reduced, so that the dyeing bath ratio is significantly reduced, usually in 1:5-1:6. Due to the reduction of dye quantity, the exchange of dye and knitted fabric is mainly completed in the nozzle operation, which is relatively short, so the selection of dye is particular about. (3) clean-up FenLiuXing dyeing equipment the clean-up FenLiuXing dyeing equipment, abandoned the main general practice by lowering bath ratios to achieve energy saving purpose, on the basis of appropriate reduce the bath ratio, with the concept of a new design of the special equipment of sewage disposal structure, aimed at the whole process of dyeing to realize wash water before and after washing in the water diversion, to improve the washing effect, shorten the washing time, effectively reduces the total water consumption, on the issue of energy saving and other new models all roads lead to Rome.
3、Technical elements: the important technical elements in knitting dyeing and finishing engineering are the selection of dye additives, the selection of process and process, the selection of suitable equipment and the comprehensive optimization. Dyeing auxiliaries is knitting dyeing active elements, with the development of modern chemistry, is conducive to enhance the energy efficiency of the dye with high increasing rate, high absorption rate, high adhesion rate of the "three highs" to improve the dyeing a large amount of water consumption of old, and all kinds of performance of different additives can make the processing time, processing temperature, the revolutionary change processing way, greatly promote the pace of the people in the aspect of energy saving. The design of process and process in the dye and appropriate equipment with the coordination, has been full play of big, fast and good function, "short, fast, good" has become the focus of process design, resulting in comprehensive benefits, that is, from the "energy saving" and beyond the "energy saving". Other aspects of knitting dyeing and finishing, such as cold bleaching and cold dyeing technology and equipment, hot setting machine equipment, tension-free dryer equipment, have made new achievements.
four、 Functional finishing of knitwear is a product of The Times, and with the development of The Times will continue to give new connotation. The functional characteristics of knitwear are obtained by dyeing and finishing, except for some special fiber materials. We can notice that the traditional antibacterial, non-ironing anti-wrinkle (wash can wear, machine can wash), flame retardant, anti-pilling, waterproof, anti-static and other functional treatment regardless of the method (means) or in the functional strength has changed with each passing day. In addition, some of the high - tech, high - functional features and characteristics of the finishing method has become a prototype, and will get faster development. Of particular concern is that functional finishing has developed from a single post-processing to the combination with fiber materials and braided structures, creating unprecedented new functions. Its main properties can be divided into three categories:
1、Physical function: conductivity, antistatic, high insulation, electromagnetic shielding, high temperature resistance, insulation, fire resistance, uv resistance linear.
2、Chemical function: light energy, deodorization function.
3、Biological adaptability: antibacterial, aromatic, physical adaptability, biological absorption, biological compatibility, etc. It can be predicted that the antibacterial finishing of knitted fabrics will be fully developed. The important purpose of this finishing is not only to prevent the knitted fabric from being contaminated by microorganisms and damage, but also to ensure the health and comfort of consumers. Under the banner of "health first", the function of knitted goods (clothing) will evolve from covering body -- beautiful, to the pursuit of health and cleanliness. At the same time, we should also see that the functional knitwear has jumped out of the home textile apparel type, completely into the decoration, medical, environmental protection, agriculture, architecture, geology, transportation, packaging, chemical, automotive and other fields. It can also be predicted that the significance of functional finishing of knitted fabrics (clothing) will surpass dyeing itself and become an active part of dyeing and finishing engineering, which will also become the focus of dyeing and finishing workers. A good dyeing and finishing worker should be a competent knitwear finishing expert.
five、 The application of electronic computers in knitting dyeing and finishing (equipment) can be traced back to the early 1980s. At that time, dyeing machines imported from advanced countries such as Japan and Germany were already equipped with computer program controllers that could control temperature, time and inlet and drainage (commonly known as "single-board machines"), which were still very advanced and rare in that era. Nearly two decades later, computer program control has become standard in all kinds of dyeing and finishing equipment, especially dyeing machines. Even so, the application of computer in domestic knitting dyeing and finishing (technology, equipment, process) is still in the initial stage, most of which still stay in the level of data collection and segmented use, mainly used for color measurement and color matching. Internationally, the electronic computer application of knitting dyeing and finishing has been quite successful and mature. The central computer control system makes use of the computer network to control all dyeing machines centrally, so as to realize the modernization and timeliness of production management and production process. Advanced electronic computer control characteristics are: single-machine automation to the computer network development, the formation of a complete system of comprehensive data collection, intelligent production management system; The adoption of a variety of online testing equipment to ensure product quality; The dyeing and finishing process parameters through the computer identification, display, operation and management is convenient, simple, improve the reliability of the control; Electronic computer applications also benefit from mechanical and electrical integration, frequency conversion technology and other synchronous innovation. Combined with the national conditions of China, what can arouse people's interest in the current situation is the color quality control technology of dyeing and finishing production and the automatic metering system of production (dye), which is an example of a computer system combining hardware and software. This technology and system is designed for color reproduction from qualitative to quantitative management, mainly by computer color matching system, laboratory automatic liquid mixing system, dye metering system and color detection system. The whole system can successively complete the color measurement, reference dye prescription, automatic configuration of solution, high-precision weighing of dye formula, on-line inspection of color difference of knitted fabric (fabric) and other functions, better realize the color control of the whole process. Because the unit and compatibility of the system are superior, so, people can choose according to the needs of a unit or several units, in order to achieve the actual situation of the enterprise integration. With the development of computer technology and people's deeper understanding of the transformation of traditional industries with high and new technology, the pace is speeding up and the investment is increasing, the dependence of China's knitting dyeing and finishing production on computers will be further highlighted. The improvement of people's living standards and requirements for consumer goods is endless, the development of science and technology is endless, the development of knitting dyeing and finishing is endless, to reach the other side of the ideal.
As a member of knitting product development, pinuo will also keep pace with The Times and make itself better!